Interest In E-Cigarettes Is High, But Overall Safety And Effectiveness Remains Unknown

By Christopher Fisher, PhD


Electronic cigarettes are drawing heavy media and marketing attention, and while a new study finds that consumer interest also runs high, a companion study underscores that e-cigarettes’ ability to help smokers cut down or quit is unknown. E-cigarettes run on batteries and look like real cigarettes, cigars, or even ballpoint pens. Users inhale doses of nicotine or other toxins found in tobacco in vapor form. Because e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or create smoke, manufacturers are marketing them both as a safer alternative to smoking and as a cessation aid.

Of the two studies appearing online and in the April issue American Journal of Preventive Medicine, one shows that consumer interest in e-cigarettes currently is much higher than interest in more traditional products.

“Although we don’t know much about the health effects of e-cigarettes, they are by far the most popular smoking alternatives and cessation products on the market,” said lead author John Ayers, a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

His group monitored English-language Google searches in the USA, Canada, the UK, and Australia from January 2008 until September 2010. They compared searches for e-cigarettes with searches for a nicotine lozenge and for cessation products like nicotine patches, nicotine gum, and the drug Chantix (varenicline).

Between July 2008 and February 2010, searches about e-cigarettes increased sharply in all nations, especially in the United States. “We found that e-cigarettes were more popular in U.S. states with stronger tobacco control,” Ayers said. This, he said, suggests that consumers are using e-cigarettes to either bypass smoking restrictions or to quit when faced with restrictions.

To see if searches on e-cigarettes led to sales, his group monitored online shopping searches. They found that shopping search trends mirrored informational search trends.

In the second study, Michael Siegel, M.D., looked at e-cigarettes’ effectiveness as smoking cessation aids using an online survey. Siegel, a professor at the Boston University School of Public Health, obtained 5,000 email addresses of people who had made a first-time purchase in 2009 from an e-cigarette distributor.

Of the 222 consumers replied to the survey, 216 were qualified to participate. Nearly 67 percent of these respondents said they reduced the number of cigarettes they smoked since using e-cigarettes and 49 percent reported that they had quit smoking for an unspecified time after trying e-cigarettes.

Siegel acknowledged and other smoking cessation experts have said that it is possible that smokers who had greater success cutting down or quitting were more likely to respond. This would bias the results, which already relied on a small fraction of those contacted.

“We don’t know anything about the 95 percent of the people who deleted the email,” said Jennifer Unger, Ph.D. “Maybe they’re still smoking the same number of cigarettes. Maybe they are using even more nicotine than before because they’re smoking ordinary cigarettes and e-cigarettes.” Unger, with the Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research at the University of Southern California, has no affiliation with either study.

“Neither of these two studies provides scientific evidence that e-cigarettes are effective in helping people to quit,” said John Pierce, Ph.D., a professor of cancer prevention at the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California at San Diego. “It’s not clear to me that e-cigarettes aren’t harmful in some way. It’s not clear to the FDA, either.”

In Sept. 2010, the Food and Drug Administration cited five e-cigarette distributors for “unsubstantiated claims and poor manufacturing practices,” according to an agency release. In January 2011, the FDA moved unsuccessfully to block e-cigarette importation.

Source The Behavioral Medicine Report

The Devil’s Playthings

By Lynn Phillips


I don’t normally watch Two and a Half Men, the television sitcom that stars the tabloid pet of the hour, actor and addict Charlie Sheen, but having just watched an episode on its official Website I was fascinated to see that Sheen often appears to have no idea what to do with his hands. When the rest of him speaks, they move vaguely about at his sides like anemones. At moments requiring emphasis his forearms rise up like the parted ends of a drawbridge, the arms of a public speaking newbie encouraged by some mediocre media coach to gesticulate.

It’s not that the rest of Sheen can’t act. He delivers his lines with fine comic timing, and neither his joyless eyes nor the fact that his eyebrows have always knit in the middle interferes with his staying in character, especially since that character – a boozy womanizer – is based on what was supposed to be his former self. But the blundering tension that skitters through his arms suggests that part of this veteran actor, true to the note allegedly tattooed on his chest that reads, “Be Back in 15 Minutes,” is clear out of his skin.

Out of his skin and back in the skin trade. With his recent 36 hour crack and hooker spree in mind, I thought to attribute his loss of focus on the set to his spectacular excesses in the privacy of his orgies. The cause-and-effect structures of human behavior, however, are freighted with ambiguity, and it’s entirely possible that Sheen may require emergency-room calibre endorphins simply to remain in the TV star business.

His employers at CBS seem confused on this point as well, because they have permitted, if not actually encouraged Sheen to, in every sense, blow. And why not? They have a hit show; the eyeball market is increasingly competitive; the stockholders all have kids to send to college: if the star needs to drive off a cliff to stay starry, why take away his keys? Perhaps it was in anticipation of such corporate benevolence that Sheen’s limbs were twitching in advance—you know, with gratitude. (1) More likely, however, what we’re seeing on screen is the stifled impulse to flap his appendages and fly away. The question is: where to?


Yesteryear’s bad boy marathoner, Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones, never had the idle hands problem. Nearly every photograph in his recently published memoir, modestly entitled Keith Richards — Life, (then, in smaller letters… “with James Fox”),  shows him with wrist elegantly cocked, a drink or cigarette or friend or lover in hand, or even more characteristically, with his arms around a guitar, fingering a fret or thinking of playing something he believes in. Like Patti Smith (see my previous column ), Richards did his best to subordinate his drug hunger and death wish to his creative work. 

Whether or not one believes that Richards succeeded as well as he claims, his memoir houses, among other treasures, a remarkably good celebrity addict tip sheet. Pointers Sheen could evidently use.

Tip number one is, don’t fall in love with fame. Richards, rather credibly, says that he saw it as the only means by which a wastrel from South London could get to play the music he wanted and meet blues and rockabilly musicians he idolized. (2) When Sheen finds himself, by way of solicitation, emailing a sex pro that he is “an A-list actor” he might surmise that he’s getting this one wrong.

As Richards tells it, his notorious drug habits began as performance enhancers. Exhausted by the punishing lulls and high-energy demands of road tours, he asked his elders and betters how they kept looking so good every day. The old blues boys told him: “This is how we do it: you take one of these, and then you smoke one of these.” (3) So tip number two is to use drugs for something more than fun. At various points in his career, Richards writes, heroin and cocaine were useful to him, buffering him from the human static around him and letting him focus on his music, helping him to become an observer with enough distance on strong people and feelings to write songs about them. Charlie, are you listening?

As with his music, Richards’s attitude towards drugs was one of both compulsion and connoisseurship.  Even after he blossomed into a world-class drug addict he did his best to maintain high standards, hence his third celebrity addict tip: insist on pharmaceutical grade cocaine. The impurities, he claims, can do you more harm than the drug itself, so if it’s arriving in briefcases, look out.

Tip the fourth is more complicated. It boils down to: don’t try to go through the roof. Although he reports snorting, on one occasion, an immoderately huge line of cocaine, he says that he generally resisted the impulse to keep gobbling up more and more of whatever he was taking in the false belief that another snort or hit would get him higher rather than trashed. In the same vein (sorry)  he claims to have stuck to skin-popping heroin rather than mainlining, and, unlike Sheen, he stayed clear of crack.  

Lastly, whenever he went back on smack after detox, he started off with a weakened pop; avoiding the tendency of addicts coming out of rehab to overdose. According to 22 year old adult film star Kacey Jordan, one of his recent party partners, Sheen ignores all of Keith Richards’ drug pacing and dosage tips. He was hitting his crack pipe two to five times a minute before stomach cramps got him hauled away in an ambulance. “All I heard was “light,” Jordan told Good Morning America, “Light, light light. All night.”  

After many painful failed attempts (he denies having his blood changed as urban legends have it), Richards finally succeeded in beating his addiction once the logistics of procuring drugs on the road while under close surveillance from police became too daunting. When he had to choose between his habit or the band, he chose the band. So, while he broke his addiction in part because of his love of rock ‘n roll, it was also partly thanks to the threat of imprisonment—a sobering consideration for the medical model purists in charge of Sheen’s rehabilitation and courts that keep him in charge of his own money.

One possible clue to Richards’ recovery of over twenty years’ duration is his desire for human connection—not only with friends and lovers, family and fellow musicians, but also with audiences. When he writes about his experience of reaching into a sea of hearts through music—music freely chosen and played with integrity—it’s clear why, when competing for his dopamine receptors the guitar ultimately won priority over the needle.

For the star of Two and a Half Men, it’s hard to imagine a comparably inspiring attachment. He obviously cares about his work, but what he first admired about the young brat packers who preceded him, like Rob Lowe and Tom Cruise, was their large living as much as their craft. (3)

Nor do family attachments seem to compel him viscerally. Kayce Jordan also told GMA that Sheen wanted to rent himself a pleasure dome to house his personal selection of sex workers. The father of five children (the latest pair around two years old), seriously proposed that Jordan babysit his kids when they visited the sex palace. This is an excellent way to convince himself that he is concerned for the welfare of his children while simultaneously making it unlikely he’d ever be granted custody.

If Mlle. Jordan is to be believed, Sheen was ready for his 15 minutes of fame to end. “Yeah,” she reported, “…he wants to retire; just wants to have fun. He’s like, ‘I’m done; I’m done.'”

Well, fast-forwarding to the final chapter, perhaps. “This is somebody with some character [and] logical flaws,” reality tv’s celebrity rehabber Dr. Drew Pinsky told People Magazine in a fit of understatement. Dr. Pinsky described Sheen’s condition as “a life-threatening illness,” and expressed doubt that he could recover without taking considerable time off from his job. But is there really any escape from Sheen’s job when even one’s prospective therapists are trawling for clients with screen credits?

There is no scientific study to back this up, but over the years I’ve noticed that few Hollywood stars maintain any psychological equilibrium in what-have-you-done-lately country without something emotionally sticky to hold on to: rainforests or orphans, gurus or endangered animals, dreaded diseases or gods. You can call these handles and rescue ropes the celebrities’ “higher powers,” though I don’t, just as I don’t think stars do these things “just for the publicity.” People whose existence depends on their ability to project fabulousness and desirability, larger-than-lifeness, seem to need alternate identities that have a sober fabulousness of their own, something that can dilute the drug of objectified desire with vitamin shots of being useful or “good.”

Unfortunately for Charlie Sheen, the only cause that seems to have moved him to action is a failed quest. He was a major 9/11 conspiracy theorist, and lobbied hard for Obama to re-open investigations—to no avail.(5)  Even if you diagnose that particular cause as a paranoid’s folly rather than a patriot’s crusade, it’s significant that Sheen was groping for something more than the infantalization that CBS is currently offering: in-house rehab, more millions to squander on self-entertainment and more work for hire. As Richards’ story shows, if you want to survive your addictions as a creative bad boy, it helps you to get a grip if you’re actually creating. And not actually bad—or behaving like a boy.

Source Psychology Today

Overcoming Guru-phobia

By Matthew B. James, Ph.D.


I received a comment on a blog post I recently wrote and it got me thinking about the need to forgive spiritual teachers when we feel they have let us down.

There are teachers in spiritual traditions around the globe working to make our planet a better place. They are working to increase tolerance and understanding and promote peace, prosperity and personal growth.

Yet, spiritual teachers are human and bound to make mistakes. Some people carry wounds from past experiences with spiritual teachers. Unfortunately, the human tendency when this happens is like “gotcha” journalism – it can cause people to be so distrustful that they see negativity everywhere. People may feel that because one teacher let them down, all of them are bad. Or they find a new spiritual tradition and feel that their former one is wrong.

In the Huna tradition of ancient Hawaii there is a saying I learned from one of my kumu (teachers) Uncle George Naope. He had it posted at his hula school: A ohe pau ko ike i kou halau. The rough English translation is, “Think not that all wisdom is in your school.” By grasping this idea we are able to share ideas and concepts from many traditions with mutual respect. For me, it is a reminder that Huna is one of many paths to understanding.

There are many examples of teachers from all different spiritual traditions who have made mistakes. Sometimes, those mistakes have directly hurt their followers. When people hold onto hurt feelings from these experiences, they may attack other teachers and traditions without taking the time to learn about them.

I was fortunate to have the opportunity to begin learning Huna at the age of 13 directly from Hawaiian elders such as Uncle George. They passed down this knowledge, a gift based on thousands of years of experience, to our family. As someone who has studied and been authorized to teach from an ancient sacred tradition, I wrote these guidelines to help people find a reputable and authentic teacher:

1. Do your research. Check out the teacher’s background. A spiritual teacher should have extensive personal experience and either cultural or academic credentials. Does this person come from an established lineage? Does he or she have academic degrees from an accredited and respected university? What is the extent of the teacher’s practical, real-life experience with participants? Has he or she completed original research, participated in studies, written articles or books?

2. Beware of self-hype. Does the teacher call himself a guru? If so, he’s probably not. True spiritual teachers are humble and don’t need to puff themselves up. One of my kumu (teachers) Uncle George Naope would say, “if you have to call yourself a Kahuna, you’re probably not one.” In ancient times, these titles were given, not taken, and even when given, there was humbleness.

3. Check out followers. Are these the kind of people you want to associate with? Are they like-minded individuals with goals similar to your own? Are their testimonials believable? What kind of progress have they made during their course of study in the tradition you’re considering?

4. Does the safety and wellbeing of students come first? What safety precautions and procedures are in place? Are these explained thoroughly before any kind of adventure, challenge, or unusual act is undertaken? Is there an alternative for people who don’t feel up to the challenge so they can still enjoy and benefit from the experience? For 21 years now, we have been running our Huna workshop every March and September in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. During the workshop, we take our haumana (students) on a field trip and hike across the volcano. Not everyone can make the hike, so there is an alternative field trip at the volcano that is just as powerful and profound. Spiritual studies are not about pushing the limits, but finding your foundation and exploring the mana (energy) in the simplest moments.

5. Beware of autocracy. Does the teacher demand that you follow him to the exclusion of all other teachers or paths? If so, that is a red flag that should alert you to stay away. Teachers who are secure with themselves and their teachings encourage their students to discover knowledge on their own and not to take their word as “the truth.” A trustworthy leader asks that students check in with themselves to find their own inner knowledge.

6. Look for openness. Does the teacher encourage you to find your own voice and path? Does he or she create a safe space for participants to voice their fears, concerns or questions?

7. Does the teacher “walk the talk?” This goes back to doing your homework. Research the teacher’s background and talk to people who have been through the training to determine if the leader practices what he teaches. Does he lead an exemplary life? Is he honest about his mistakes?

8. Beware of false promises. The old adage applies here: if something seems too good to be true, it probably is. Don’t be afraid to question the claims being made. An authentic spiritual teacher will not be threatened and will take the time to answer your questions.

9. Understand your expectations. What do you hope to get out of the training? It is a good idea to write this down beforehand and to discuss it with the teacher to assure your expectations are realistic and aligned with the benefits of the teaching.

10. Respect your limits. Be aware of any physical or other constraints that might affect your participation and discuss them beforehand with the teacher. If you have specific needs, make them known so the teacher can accommodate them if possible. Above all take care of yourself and pay attention to signs of fatigue, illness or concern. You are the ultimate guardian of your health and happiness.

Finally, when considering something as important as spiritual training, you should trust your gut, even in cases where you research the leader and the program you plan to attend, and pay attention to your feelings about whether this leader and event are right for you. If you are feeling ill at ease or experiencing spiritual discord, listen to those cues.

All teachers should not be mistrusted because of the mistakes of a few. Whatever has happened in the past, people need to forgive. Holding on to hurt feelings only leads to bitterness and distrust that can cause people to miss out on future opportunities to grow and learn.

On the other hand, if people are able to acknowledge and then release past hurts, they will remain open to learning from the many diverse and wonderful spiritual traditions of humanity. The more we are able to forgive, the more freedom we will experience – freedom to embrace the present and the future without the past weighing us down. That’s what forgiveness is all about.

Source Psychology Today

Naysayers and Procrastination

By Dr. Bill Knaus EdD


How many times have you heard people negate your ideas or down what you wanted to do?  You have a new idea about how to streamline an operation. A co-worker says your idea is too impractical. You want to write a children’s book. A cousin tells you the publishing market is too tough. Throughout your life you’ll meet many of these wet blanket specialists with a knack for downing ideas and spoiling good times.The naysayer effect is when you take the unstudied words of negators too seriously and procrastinate on actualizing your wishes and plans. This self-limiting is a major stress.

So, who are the naysayers? When you hear a naysaying, and accept it, does this give you an excuse for procrastinating?  When you naysay against yourself, will you procrastinate? Let’s see.

Naysayer Qualifications

Naysayings are contrary opinions.  They also are risky predictions.  Before Wilbur and Orville Wright made their first heavier than air flight, The New York Times predicted that the plane wouldn’t get off the ground.  Before the Beatles became famous, Decca Recordings rejected the group. An executive said the public had no interest in guitar groups. Some predicted that Apple’s iPad would flop.

Naysaying may be stirred by personal reasons. Here is a sample: (1) Self-doubters project insecurities.  (2) Jealousy can stir negations. (3) Perfection can be expressed through pessimism. (4)  A well-meaning friend may want to spare you from disappointment.  (5) Experts can gain status with quip, contrary, statements.  (6) A need for control.

If I accepted naysayer opinions early in my  life, I’d be sweeping floors for a living. Here is a later-in-life example. When I proposed writing a procrastination book, an editor told me that she doubted there was enough for a brief article.  There were no psychology books out on procrastination at that time. This was a pioneering effort. The editor had no understanding of the scope of procrastination. I did. Since then, I  wrote five procrastination books. The combined sales were around 1 million copies. The original two books triggered a revolution in self-help and research in this area.

Judging Others’ Judgments

Understanding naysayer motivations creates a useful context for what is going on. However, the test lies in what you do to pit your idea against reality.  Here are two thoughts for identifying and meeting this challenge:

1. Agree with the naysayer and you cope out on yourself. You might tell yourself you could succeed if you tried and mute your self-downing voice with this excuse. Now you have two forms of procrastination: (a) skirting evaluating the evaluation; (b) derailing yourself from pursuing what you want. Here are four change opportunities: (a) Dismantle dismissive arguments by matching them against your interests, incentives, and abilities. (b) Identify and examine the naysayer statement to see where the gaps lie. (c) Get second and third opinions from objective people.  (d) Form your own opinions to include probable pros and cons of your proposed actions.

2. In the Kung Fu Panda movie the hero’s father reminded Po the Panda that his role in life was to sell noodle soup.  This insecure Panda dreamed of learning Kung Fu. By accident, he gained the opportunity. He overcome discouragement, persisted, mastered Kung Fu, and saved his community from ruin at the hands of a vengeful Kung Fu master. He succeeded by learning, inventing, and melding this natural attributes in a way where he enabled himself to meet the challenge. This optimistic message appears in other stories where the main character keeps going when the going gets tough.  (Joseph Campbell’s The Hero with a Thousand Faces gives many examples of this process.)

Naysayers inspire procrastination. They also serve a useful purpose. You may feel challenged and work extra hard to achieve. If you don’t buckle, this is a measure of your conviction.

Take a studied approach to your major life changes and challenges. This preparation insulates against naysayer statements. You’ll boost your confidence in your judgments. You are more likely to make better predictions and decisions. However, preparation is not a finger snapping event.  

Defeating Procrastination Caused by Self-Negation

The more you tilt toward self-negation, the more you’ll shy from creating opportunities for yourself. This procrastination is rooted in self-doubts.

Awareness is a start in the direction of growing your potential. Reasonably objective self-awareness influences deciding the types of challenges you’ll meet and for connecting your abilities to the task. If an objective self-awareness is desirable, then what else do you need to be aware of?

1. The ancient Greek aphorism, Know Thyself, has many prescriptions.  Experimentation is one.   If a naysayer discourages you from going to college, rather than foreclose on the idea, test the waters. Take an interesting course. See what results. Let the outcome be your guide.

2. Do you too often struggle with yourself and delay because of uncertainty and doubts? Do you then numb your interests through painful doubts and inaction? Absorb yourself in this form of naysaying thinking and you may find yourself going round the same circle.  To break from this rut, identify and debunk your own false judgments. A defeatist “I can’t win. Why bother trying.” form of self-statement is especially pernicious, but also debatable.  Measure your own naysayer judgments against these criteria: (a) Where does the judgment lead me? (2) Would a reasonable person concur that this is my only direction? (3) What disconfirming evidence brings the judgment into question?  Honest answers can help balance perspective.

3. A self-absorbed perspective is where you draw into yourself and lose sight of the big picture because you magnify a grain of sand. Look inward in this way and you’ll know much about very little. For example, you see dangers everywhere, stay stuck worrying, and miss out on much in life.  Because you declare yourself a “worrier,” you automatically negate your ability to change.  A reasonably objective perspective is radically different. You operate self-observantly. For example, you fix your attention on what you want to accomplish. You concentrate your efforts on advancing an idea or method. This radical shift can start with a flicker of a vision of what you want to accomplish. Clarity comes from action.  Confidence is a byproduct of taking purposeful action. With confidence comes a lessening of worrying.

You have no guarantees for success in life. Failure is part of learning.  Uncertainties are inevitable.  However, listening to naysaying from others and yourself is self-limiting. There is more to the picture. Getting a broader but reasoned perspective, then acting on this perspective, puts awet blanket on the naysayer effect.  You are likely to get more out of life.

Source Psychology Today

Recommitting is the Key to Long-Term Recovery from Alcoholism

By Sarah Allen Benton, M.S., L.M.H.C.


Recovery is an ongoing process and those fortunate to have long-term recovery have one thing in common- an ability to recommit themselves. It has been observed that people often get sober and as a result expect that life should go their way-a reward, in a sense, for their “good” behavior. However, that is not generally what happens. In fact, many sober high-functioning alcoholics, in particular, report that their lives often get worse before better. While this may seem unfair, it is actually a blessing in disguise- for it can ensure that the motivation to remain sober becomes internal and not based solely on external rewards. For example, a person gets sober and then receives a new job, a romantic relationship and everything external in their life takes a positive turn. Inevitably a negative situation will arise and the individual may struggle to cope and feel that there is no point to being sober because life is not going their way. In contrast, when a person is staying sober despite difficult circumstances initially, they are able to increase their distress tolerance and to realize that recovery is about slow internal growth and not dramatic external rewards. It does not matter what the conditions are in early sobriety for an individual-positive or negative, for over time difficulties will arise. It is imperative to learn how to deal with the good, bad and indifferent waves that life will inevitably bring forth.

Initially, getting sober may feel exciting, new and fresh-the world suddenly appears different and a person may feel better mentally and physically. However, this “pink cloud”, as many have labeled it, will wear off and “reality” of this lifelong venture will set in. At this time it is crucial to have a social support system in place as well as outside help for co-occurring mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, etc. (i.e., individual therapy and medication management-as needed). Getting through a difficult time while staying sober builds their “muscle” and makes the next challenge feel possible to work through. Recovery itself may start to feel mundane and tedious and it is up to the individual to take a look at all facets of their lives to see what actions they need to take in order to get back on track. This is the process of “re-committing” and it involves acknowledgement of weakness in an area(s) of recovery and then self-correcting.

There are many aspects involved in having stable recovery. Some common areas in which sober alcoholics may lose their commitment over time are:
• Attending individual therapy as recommended
• Exercising
• Obtaining proper sleep
• Maintaining balanced nutrition
• Attending regular mutual-help meeting (A.A., SMART Recovery, Women for Sobriety)
• Attending group therapy
• Staying in contact with sober peers
• Not engaging in other addictive behaviors (i.e., shopping, sex, gambling)
• Taking prescribed medication that has been assessed as necessary
• Being honest
• Pursuing spiritual practice
• Following through with daily responsibilities (i.e., work, paying bills, chores)
• Giving back to others
• Involvement in healthy relationships (friendships, family and romantic)

One pattern that can lead to relapse is, for example, not attending mutual-help meetings for a period of time and then feeling discouraged about this pattern, giving up all effort in other areas of recovery and possibly relapsing. Instead of viewing this break from an aspect of recovery as a temporary lull and then recommitting, many individuals use “black and white” thinking to judges themselves in a negative way and as a result may “give up” on sobriety. However, no one is perfect, and everyone with long-term recovery has had a time when they were lacking motivation in one area or another. The key is to observe what aspect of life is out of balance and to work on making adjustments without giving up completely. Sometimes creating small and obtainable daily goals can help a person to get back into their routine. It is important to reach out for help and to talk with others in their support network about these challenges-for no one has to be alone on this path.

Source Psychology Today

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