Cigarette makers shifted stance on nicotine patches, gum, study shows

The use of nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers or nasal sprays — together called “nicotine replacement therapy,” or NRT — came into play in 1984 as prescription medicine, which when combined with counseling, helped smokers quit. But in 1996, at the urging of pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed those products to be sold over-the-counter.

Now, a new study conducted by scientists at UC San Francisco reports that tobacco companies have known for decades that, without counseling, NRT hardly ever works, and that consumers often use it to complement smoking. This insight from the formerly secret industry documents known as the “Tobacco Papers” reveals why companies that once viewed nicotine patches and gum as a threat to their cigarette sales now embrace them as a business opportunity, the researchers said.

Full story at Science Daily

Starting opioid addiction treatment in the ED is cost-effective

The most cost-effective treatment for people with untreated opioid addiction who visit the emergency department (ED) is buprenorphine, a medication to reduce drug cravings and withdrawal, say Yale researchers. Their study found that among patients who came to the ED, the ED-initiated medication strategy was most likely to be cost-effective compared to referral alone or a brief intervention with facilitated referral, the researchers said.

The study was published in the journal Addiction.

Nationally, only about one in five individuals who needed treatment for opioid addiction received treatment in the past year, and fewer received the most effective treatments, such as buprenorphine. Yet studies have shown that treating individuals with such medications is effective. In an earlier analysis of this study, Yale researchers found that when patients are screened for opioid addiction, receive ED-initiated buprenorphine, and a referral for ongoing treatment, the treatment was more effective than a standard referral or brief intervention with referral.

Full story at Science Daily

Marijuana use amongst youth stable, but substance abuse admissions up

While marijuana use amongst youth remains stable, youth admission to substance abuse treatment facilities has increased, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Miesha Marzell, assistant professor of social work at Binghamton University, along with researchers at The University of Iowa, did a secondary analysis of data collected from every nationally funded substance abuse treatment facility in the United States from 2003-2013. The data covered admissions before and after major marijuana policies were enacted nationwide. The team’s analysis showed that while marijuana use amongst youth has remained relatively unchanged, admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities has increased.

“Teens were being admitted to substance abuse treatment centers across the United States, but they were not necessarily indicating that their marijuana use was at a high-risk,” said Marzell.

Full story at Medical Xpress

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Women Who Inject Drugs: Risks, Experiences, and Needs

Women who inject drugs have substantially different needs and face higher risks of disease and violence than do men who inject drugs.  This CE course seeks to illuminate the many reasons a focus on drug-injecting women is important, including their significantly higher mortality rates, increased likelihood of facing injecting-related problems, faster progression from first use to dependence, higher rates of HIV, increased risky injection and/or sexual risk behaviors.

Prevention of Youth Violence and Risk Associated Behaviors

Youth violence is a significant public health problem that affects thousands of young people each day, and in turn, their families, schools, and communities.  This CEU course includes programs, practices, and policies with evidence of impact on youth violence victimization, perpetration, and risk or protective factors for youth violence.

Pharmacological Management of Schizophrenia

This CEU course provides recommendations for treatment of inmates in federal facilities who are diagnosed with chronic psychotic disorders.

Child Welfare and Human Trafficking

Often, the lack of stability in a child’s living situation, physical distance from friends and family, and emotional vulnerability put them at risk for traffickers who are actively seeking children and teens to exploit.  This CEU course provides a broad overview of the crossover between the child welfare field and the work currently being done to prevent and respond to human trafficking of children and youth in the United States.

Full more on these new courses and many more, visit Quantum Units Education

 

First secondhand smoke, now secondhand harm from drinking

It’s no secret that university life often includes alcohol use, which can sometimes cause harm. Yet harm can also extend beyond the drinker, such as “secondhand harm” that is caused by intoxicated people: accidents or domestic, physical, or sexual violence; interrupted sleep or property destruction; and arguments, problems with relationships, or financial problems. Prior research suggests that more than 70 percent of college undergraduates have experienced harm from other students’ drinking. This study examined the prevalence and types of secondhand harm among Canadian undergraduates, and whether certain personality risks for alcohol use disorder — impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity — can predict secondhand-harm exposure.

Researchers administered an online survey to 1,537 first-year Canadian undergraduates (two-thirds of whom were women) during 2015. Problematic alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and personality was measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). The 11 secondhand-harm choices given to students ranged from “interrupted your studies” to “sexually harassed/insulted you.”

Full story at Science Daily