GOVERNMENT-SANCTIONED DRUG ADDICTION: IS SUBOXONE THE NEXT METHADONE?

By Addiction Treatment Magazine


For years state governments have been treating heroin addicts with Methadone, a drug that uses the same receptors in our brains that heroin would use and has some of the same effects (without the same level of euphoria), thus eliminating painful heroin withdrawal symptoms. Because Methadone blocks the “high” of any heroin ingested while Methadone is present, it effectively eliminates a user’s desire to take heroin. Methadone maintenance programs are big business in the United States, run by for-profit corporations and supplied by leading pharmaceutical companies.

Although methadone programs claim that heroin users will eventually be able to also stop taking Methadone, this has not been the experience of the majority of patients. In fact, many addiction professionals consider Methadone to be just as addictive as heroin, meaning those on Methadone maintenance programs simply switch from being addicted to heroin to being addicted to Methadone. Because Methadone still produces a “high”, users will try to abuse it on order to get the same effect as heroin. It is considered to be a “full agonist”. This is great for the companies that run Methadone clinics – this is a serious drug subject to overdose and abuse and cannot be prescribed in a doctor’s office.

Full story at Addiction Treatment Magazine

Research Suggests That Clinical Symptoms Of Food Addiction Are Similar To Symptoms Of Drug Addiction

By Medical News Today


Research to be presented at the upcoming annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), the foremost society for research into all aspects of eating and drinking behavior, suggests that people can become dependent on highly palatable foods and engage in a compulsive pattern of consumption, similar to the behaviors we observe in drug addicts and those with alcoholism.

Using a questionnaire originally developed by researchers at Yale University, a group of obese men and women were assessed according to the 7 symptoms recommended by the American Psychiatric Association to diagnose substance dependence (e.g., withdrawal, tolerance, continued use despite problems), with questions modified by replacing the word food for drugs within the questions. Based on their responses, individuals were classified as ‘food addicts’ or non-addicts, and then the two groups were compared in three areas relevant to conventional addiction disorders: clinical co-morbidities, psychological risk factors, and abnormal motivation for the addictive substance.

Full story at Medical News Today

Similarities Found in Brain Activity for Both Habits and Goals

ScienceDaily


A team of researchers has found that pursuing carefully planned goals and engaging in more automatic habits shows overlapping neurological mechanisms. Because the findings, which appear in the latest issue of the journal Neuron, show a neurological linkage between goal-directed and habitual, and perhaps damaging, behaviors, they may offer a pathway for beginning to address addiction and similar maladies.

The study was conducted by researchers at New York University’s Center for Neural Science and Department of Psychology, Princeton University’s Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Institute, and University College London’s Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging and Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London.

The brain is believed to engage in two types of decision-making processes — deliberative, in which the future consequences of potential actions are weighed in order to achieve a particular goal, and automatic or habitual, in which previously successful actions are repeated without further contemplation. While the mechanisms behind these behaviors are distinct — with goal-directed actions the result of planning and habitual ones, associated with addiction, produced more thoughtlessly — researchers have had difficulty separating them behaviorally as they both typically pursue common ends.

The researchers on the Neuron study sought to differentiate both types of decision making by studying how humans’ decisions and brain activity, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were influenced by previously received vs. potential future rewards in a gambling game.

In the experiments, subjects were asked to make two sets of choices, with a monetary reward given if they made certain selections. In the first set of choices, subjects were asked to make selections between different slot machines, represented by colored boxes. These choices led to the opportunity to choose between additional slot machines. If the subjects made certain choices in this second stage, they received a monetary reward. Each subject repeated this process 200 times, with the chance of winning a monetary reward varying in each round — in some rounds, certain selections were associated with a high chance of winning money; in other rounds, these same choices were much less likely to yield a monetary benefit.

By analyzing how subjects adjusted their choices based on winning, or failing to win, money, the researchers were able to distinguish goal-directed from habitual decisions. Since the chances of winning money for different choices were constantly changing, a habitual decision, which is based on repeating a previously rewarded choice, was distinct from a goal directed one, which is based on contemplating the future outcome expected for the action.

Having dissociated the two types of decisions, the researchers examined brain activity related to decision processes. Despite the distinctions between goal-directed and habitual behaviors, the subjects’ brain activity was similar for both types of action. Indeed, signals related to goal-directed plans were observed in an area of the brain known as the ventral striatum, which is normally associated with habits and drug abuse.

“This surprising result shows that the brain’s systems for different behaviors are more intertwined than previously thought,” explained Nathaniel Daw, an assistant professor in NYU’s Center for Neural Science and Department of Psychology, one of the study’s co-authors.

The authors added that the finding paves the way for seeking to understand how the brain regulates between goal-directed and habitual behaviors. By comprehending the mechanisms by which the brain controls these behaviors, subsequent research can begin to address how to curb habitual behaviors such as drug addiction or alcoholism. More specifically, because these decisions have a common neural target, there is a possibility that therapeutic methods could be designed and tested, targeting this locus, to enhance goal-directed behaviors while diminishing habitual ones.

The study was funded, in part, by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Source ScienceDaily

Addiction during the holidays: Recovered or not, it’s important to be prepared

by Adi Jaffe


The holidays are a stressful time for everyone. Between gift-giving, travel, and keeping up with all parts of the ever-complicated modern family unit, nearly anyone can find themselves driven towards the nearest coping mechanism, whatever that may be. However, for recovering addicts, or those still struggling with an active addiction, the holidays can be a particularly troubling season that can invite a destructive relapse. As with all mental and physical health issues, education and awareness are a powerful first line of defense. By going over some of the most frequently asked questions about addiction and the holidays, we can attempt to shed some light on these issues for addicts and their families to help combat them before, not after, they become bigger problems (like a relapse).

Why Are The Holidays So Difficult For Addicts?

Obviously, as just mentioned, the pressures of the holidays are difficult for everyone. But for addicts, these same issues of money, family and general stress are amplified, often because they are the same age-old issues that lie at the root of the addiction and the beginning of drug use and abuse in the first place. If the recovering addict has not had the opportunity to openly confront family issues in the past, either with the family itself or with a therapist or counselor, the potential for relapse can be great. A vast amount of research shows how stress can bring even long-dormant behavior back to the surface, which should serve as a warning to substance and behavioral addicts alike (like sex addicts or compulsive gamblers). On the other end of the spectrum, addicts without a stable family or group of friends are often left feeling alone and isolated during the holidays, another powerful source of the shame and boredom that can drive addictive behavior.

What Are Some Of  The Hidden Struggles That Can Intensify Addiction/Trigger A Relapse?

Most often, these struggles emerge from one of two likely scenarios. In the event of a still active addiction, attempts to hide the problem from friends and family and the resulting stress can, paradoxically, intensify the addictive behavior. And whether the addiction has been treated or not, gathering with family in a familiar place can frequently cause someone to face many of the underlying issues that can be the root causes of a drug addiction or compulsive behavior. To paraphrase Tolstoy, all unhappy families are unhappy in their own unique way, and whether one’s particular family is overly judgmental, enabling, angry, or whatever else, it can serve to restart self-destructive patterns of behavior. For some recovering addicts, there may be a family-imposed secrecy around the recovery itself, which can be trying at a time when the whole family is gathering, ostensibly to celebrate one another. Even the house (including the room where an addict used to act out) and certain family members (like that cousin they used to smoke weed with) can be important cues that may re-trigger cravings and old behavioral patterns. Additionally and importantly, if there is a family history of any kind of past abuse, this can obviously serve as a particularly powerful and insidious trigger for addicts, whether recovering or not. In fact, recent research suggests that these old, root stimuli may be much more powerful for drug addicts than re-experiencing the drug itself.

What Are Some Strategies For Surviving The Holidays?

First and foremost, one must be prepared. Since most people at least know and are aware of the potential issues that might arise within their own families, it is crucial not to try to “wing it.” If you know that your family is going to be asking lots of uncomfortable questions, practice some appropriate answers and don’t feel obligated to discuss any aspect of your recovery that you’re not comfortable discussing. If your family is overly focused on achievement or likes to bring up stories from the past that are triggering or shameful, rehearse your reactions to them. If you have a friend or significant someone who can help, do a little role-play trying out different answers and see how they feel as you actually say them out loud. It will never be exactly the same as you practice, but being prepared can go a long way towards taming the body and brain’s natural stress responses. Just as importantly, if you know you’re liable to encounter events or people that formerly facilitated addictive behavior, role play those likely scenarios and know how you plan on turning down or avoiding those substances or behaviors. For instance, figure out how exactly you’re going to tell your cousin you aren’t going to smoke in the basement with him before you have to actually do it. It will sound a lot less forced and strange the second time around and you will have already experienced some of the associated anxiety. If you’re going to be alone, make distinct plans for your activities and do the best you can to find healthy situations to participate in, even if they seem new or slightly uncomfortable at first. For instance, go ahead and join that group of strangers for a Christmas eve dinner or Christmas day movie instead of spending those times along. After all, uncomfortable or not, a new, healthy experience will be vastly preferable to sliding back into the same old destructive patterns of the past.

Should I Use New Years To Confront My Addiction?

Most everyone is familiar with the New Year’s Resolution as a method of planning major life changes. Of course, most everyone is also familiar with the limited success rate of these resolutions, and of the effectiveness of “going cold turkey” in general. Depending on the addiction, there are certainly things that individuals can do to help themselves- for example, research suggests that when trying to quit smoking setting a quit date and beginning to use replacement patches or supplements in anticipation of that date (in other words, while still smoking) can help reduce the amount of smoking while approaching that quit date, making it easier when the day finally arrives. If you’re planning to quit a “harder” drug than nicotine, you may want to set a whole schedule for reducing drug use prior to the quit date itself. The important thing is to be completely realistic in order for the change to stick. If you’re drinking a bottle of vodka a day, attempting to go completely dry within a week can be extremely dangerous to your health, and will not likely result in a permanent change. Once again, education and preparation are key. Prepare for any sort of quitting by looking online on sites like AllAboutAddiction and WebMD, and identify the medical and psychological issues that are likely to accompany your attempt. Look to see if your problem is one that you can handle alone, or if it is recommended that a doctor help you with the process. Remember that your goal should be lifetime change, not a temporary one. Though it might seem counter-intuitive, if your holidays promise to be especially difficult or stressful, you may want to hold off on trying to quit during them and look at them as a time to lay the groundwork for your post New Year quit attempt rather than going for a full on cold turkey try. Such pragmatism may well help you achieve your true goal.