What are the treatments for addiction?

Addictive disorders are a group of disorders that can cause physical and psychological damage. Receiving treatment is essential for breaking the cycle of addiction.

However, as a chronic disease, addiction is difficult to treat and requires on-going care.

In the United States, around 8.1 percent of the population, or 21.7 million people, either need or regularly receive treatment for substance use disorders, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

First steps

The first step towards recovery is acknowledging that substance use has become a problem in the person’s life which is disrupting the quality of their life. This can result from impairment in school, work, social, recreational or other important areas of function.

Full story at Medical News Today

Sex, drugs and estradiol: Why cannabis affects women differently

Cannabis use is riding high on a decade-long wave of decriminalization, legalization and unregulated synthetic substitutes. As society examines the impact, an interesting disparity has become apparent: the risks are different in females than in males.

A new review of animal studies says that sex differences in response to cannabis are not just socio-cultural, but biological too. Published in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, it examines the influence of sex hormones like testosterone, estradiol (estrogen) and progesterone on the endocannabinoid system: networks of brain cells which communicate using the same family of chemicals found in cannabis, called ‘cannabinoids’.

Animal studies

“It has been pretty hard to get laboratory animals to self-administer cannabinoids like human cannabis users,” says study co-author Dr Liana Fattore, Senior Researcher at the National Research Council of Italy and President of the Mediterranean Society of Neuroscience. “However, animal studies on the effects of sex hormones and anabolic steroids on cannabinoid self-administration behavior have contributed a lot to our current understanding of sex differences in response to cannabis.”

Full story at Science Daily

How to recognize and cope with emotional exhaustion

Emotional exhaustion can arise when someone experiences a period of excessive stress in their work or personal life.

When people experience emotional exhaustion, it can make them feel emotionally drained, overwhelmed, and fatigued. These feelings tend to build up over a long period, though people may not notice the early warning signs.

This can have significant impacts on a person’s everyday life, relationships, and behavior.In this article, we discuss the symptoms, causes, and risk factors of emotional exhaustion, and we explore the many ways people can treat it or prevent it from happening.

Full story at Medical News Today

FDA Investigates Whether E-Cigarette Companies are Illegally Marketing Products

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating whether e-cigarette companies are marketing their products illegally, according to The Washington Post.

The agency sent letters to 21 manufacturers and importers, asking them to provide information on when more than 40 products went on the market. Tobacco products introduced or changed after August 8, 2016 must receive FDA clearance before being sold. If the FDA determines products are being sold illegally, the manufacturers could face fines, seizures or a court order to take the products off the market.

The new actions are part of the FDA’s plan to address the epidemic of youth e-cigarette use, the agency said in a news release.

Full story at drugfree.org

Study shows impact of social interactions on addictive behavior

A new study published in Nature Neuroscience finds that social interactions can have a profound effect on behaviors related to addiction, and on the brain’s response to drug-associated cues. These findings have implications for people with substance use disorders (SUDs), because it suggests that social interaction can change the activity of specific neuronal circuits that control drug craving and relapse. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and led by Dr. Marco Venniro from the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

The researchers used established animal models of drug addiction to show that when given a choice, rats repeatedly chose social interaction over self-administration of heroin or methamphetamine. This held true even for rats that had previously been using heroin or methamphetamine in a “compulsive” way (like humans with an SUD).

Full story at drugabuse.gov